Ergo Tips

How to sit at a computer:  Useful Advise


STEP 1: Your Chair

                      Push your hips as far back as they can go in the chair.

                      Adjust the seat height so your feet are flat on the floor and your knees equal to, or slightly lower than, your hips.

                      Adjust the back of the chair to a 100-110 reclined angle. Make sure your upper and lower back are supported. Use inflatable cushions or small pillows if necessary. If you have an active back mechanism on your chair, use it to make frequent position changes.

                      Adjust the armrests (if fitted) so that your shoulders are relaxed. If your armrests are in the way, remove them.

STEP 2: Your Keyboard

An articulating keyboard tray can provide optimal positioning of input devices. However, it should accommodate the mouse, enable leg clearance, and have an adjustable height and tilt mechanism. The tray should not push you too far away from other work materials, such as your telephone.

                      Pull up close to your keyboard.

                      Position the keyboard directly in front of your body.

                      Determine what section of the keyboard you use most frequently, and readjust the keyboard so that section is centered with your body.

                      Adjust the keyboard height so that your shoulders are relaxed, your elbows are in a slightly open position (100 to 110), and your wrists and hands are straight.

                      The tilt of your keyboard is dependent upon your sitting position. Use the keyboard tray mechanism, or keyboard feet, to adjust the tilt. If you sit in a forward or upright position, try tilting your keyboard away from you at a negative angle. If you are reclined, a slight positive tilt will help maintain a straight wrist position.

                      Wrist rests can help to maintain neutral postures and pad hard surfaces. However, the wrist rest should only be used to rest the palms of the hands between keystrokes. Resting on the wrist rest while typing is not recommended. Avoid using excessively wide wrist rests, or wrist rests that are higher than the space bar of your keyboard.

                      Place the pointer as close as possible to the keyboard. Placing it on a slightly inclined surface, or using it on a mouse bridge placed over the 10-keypad, can help to bring it closer.

If you do not have a fully adjustable keyboard tray, you may need to adjust your workstation height, the height of your chair, or use a seat cushion to get into a comfortable position. Remember to use a footrest if your feet dangle.

STEP 3: Screen, Document, and Telephone

Incorrect positioning of the screen and source documents can result in awkward postures. Adjust the screen and source documents so that your neck is in a neutral, relaxed position.

                      Centre the screen directly in front of you, above your keyboard.

                      Position the top of the screen approximately 2-3 above seated eye level. (If you wear bifocals, lower the screen to a comfortable reading level.)

                      Sit at least an arm's length away from the screen and then adjust the distance for your vision.

                      Reduce glare by careful positioning of the screen.

                                     Place screen at right angles to windows

                                     Adjust curtains or blinds as needed

                                     Adjust the vertical screen angle and screen controls to minimize glare from overhead lights

                                     Other techniques to reduce glare include use of optical glass glare filters, light filters, or secondary task lights

                      Position source documents directly in front of you, between the screen and the keyboard, using an in-line copy stand. If there is insufficient space, place source documents on a document holder positioned adjacent to the screen.

                      Place your telephone within easy reach. Telephone stands or arms can help.

                      Use headsets and speaker phone to eliminate cradling the handset.


STEP 4: Pauses and Breaks

Once you have correctly set up your computer workstation use good work habits. No matter how perfect the environment, prolonged, static postures will inhibit blood circulation and take a toll on your body.

                      Take short 1-2 minute stretch breaks every 20-30 minutes. After each hour of work, take a break or change tasks for at least 5-10 minutes. Always try to get away from your computer during lunch breaks.

                      Avoid eye fatigue by resting and refocusing your eyes periodically. Look away from the monitor and focus on something in the distance.

                      Rest your eyes by covering them with your palms for 10-15 seconds.

                      Use correct posture when working. Keep moving as much as possible.

Many aches and pains can be relieved by changing your working posture or work patterns.

Body part fatigued

Common contributing factors

 What can you try

Back of neck

Looking down at documents or keyboard

Use a document holder. Improve keyboard skills. Check screen height.

Side of neck

Looking to one side

Locate documents and screen directly in front of you

Top of shoulders, outside or front of shoulders

Keyboard too high, arms unsupported

Raise chair, use footrest, rest palms on front of desk, reduce desk height (if adjustable)

Lower back

Inadequate lumbar support

Adjust back rest height and angle to give firm support, remove arms from chair, remove obstructions under desk (eg drawers)

Upper back

Twisted posture

Sit straight-on, locate documents, screen and keyboard in front of you

Right arm or shoulder

Arm outstretched unsupported

Move mouse closer, use single surface desk

Left arm, shoulder or neck

Reaching for telephone or cradling telephone on shoulder

Bring phone closer.  Use headset.

Leg discomfort, swollen feet

Underside of thighs compressed against chair seat

Use footrest or reduce desk and chair height


Posture, visual problems, noise, stress, glare, high work load

Rearrange work area; re-direct traffic; screen filter; close blinds; shut door; vary tasks; take micropauses; smooth out work flow; reduce time on computer; eye test.

Eye fatigue, temporary short sightedness

Visual problems, screen too close, poor image quality, glare, screen reflections

Rearrange work area; screen filter; close blinds; vary tasks; take micropauses; eye test.

*Information extracted from UCLA-Environment Health and Safety